'DNA Printing' in the Cloud, Part 3


‘DNA Printing’ in the Cloud, Part 3

‘DNA Printing’ in the Cloud, Part 1

‘DNA Printing’ in the Cloud, Part 2

DNA printing has given rise to the world’s first “DNA printer” on the market, a declare superior by the product’s creators. The BioXp 3200 System is obtainable from SGI-DNA, a division of Synthetic Genomics, a San Diego biotechnology firm.

The BioXp 3200 System is a DNA/RNA assembler and synthesizer made out of metal, glass, plastic, insulated wire, laboratory devices and microprocessors. The system is about the dimension of a enterprise workplace community laser printer, however as a substitute of outputting printed laborious copy, this machine copies genes and outputs proteins.

The BioXp 3200 is a benchtop automated private genomic workstation that gives researchers with purposes in artificial biology, together with protein manufacturing, antibody library technology and cell engineering, in line with its producer.

With its assembly-and-cloning module, the BioXp system can generate linear DNA fragments from custom-designed swimming pools of “oligo” (brief fragments) nucleotides and reagents (biologically energetic substances), and may ship cloned DNA from a {custom} DNA sequence in an in a single day run.

The course of makes use of Gibson Assembly, an industry-standard molecular cloning methodology that enables the becoming a member of of a number of DNA fragments in a single, isothermal (fixed temperature) response.

The system is cybergenomic and cyberproteomic — every BioXp unit is provided with an onboard pc linked to the Internet. The course of begins with sequence information electronically transmitted from wherever in the world.

SGI-DNA prospects start by inserting their order and importing their sequences to SGI. SGI will construct and ship {custom} kits to prospects who, as soon as they obtain a package, load the deck and shut the instrument.

An onboard digicam reads the bar code on the reagent package deal and pulls the applicable optimized protocol from the cloud. DNA meeting begins, and runs usually take between 12 and 17 hours, relying on the exact nature of the assemble being synthesized — an artificially constructed phase of nucleic acid (DNA) that’s to be transplanted right into a goal tissue or cell for protein manufacturing.

Dandelion Synthetic Rubber – OSU

The trendy world runs on pure rubber, an indispensable commodity in ever shorter provide.

About 70 per cent of pure rubber latex is used for car tires wrapped round the wheels of vehicles, vehicles and bicycles, in line with Rubber World Magazine. Other merchandise product of pure rubber embrace mattresses, condoms, shoe soles, sizzling water bottles, balloons, rubber boots and seal rings. Natural rubber could be substituted by artificial rubber for some purposes, however airplane tires, for example, would explode upon touchdown if product of artificial supplies.

The main industrial supply of pure rubber latex is the Par rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), a member of the spurge household, Euphorbiaceae. This species is most popular as a result of it grows properly underneath cultivation. A correctly managed tree responds to wounding by producing extra latex for a number of years.

Although the rubber tree is native to South America, solely 3 p.c of the international pure rubber manufacturing happened in all of North, Central and South America as of 2016. The overwhelming majority of pure rubber is produced in Asia.

However, a world pure rubber scarcity is looming. World consumption of pure rubber grew 5.2 p.c in the first seven months of 2018, in contrast with development of 3.7 p.c in world pure rubber provide, in line with the Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries (ANRPC).

Natural rubber manufacturing has been impacted negatively not solely by cyclical market costs, but additionally by environmental circumstances akin to local weather change, resulting in each flooding and aridity, plant pests and illness, and deforestation. Rain forests are being felled at an alarming fee to supply plantation acreage for rising rubber bushes.

Alternatives to sturdy, dependable pure rubber are being sought, and one answer is dandelions.

OSU Bio-Emergent Materials

Katrina Cornish is the endowed chair and Ohio scholar in bio-emergent supplies at the Ohio State University’s Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (0ARDC) in Wooster, Ohio.

Cornish heads up the Cornish Lab, the place breeding and growth work has been carried out on Taraxacum kok-saghyzis, or TK,a species of dandelion native to Kazakhstan in the Russian steppes. TK is a plant notable for its manufacturing of top of the range rubber. Latex produced in the roots of the plant has properties similar to Hevea rubber latex.

The lab does direct manipulation of the plant’s genes with novel genetic engineering methods, utilizing the SGI-DNA BioXp 3200 DNA printer for gene insertion and modifying.

In a February 2018 study, Cornish and OSU colleagues described the hybridization potential between TK and the frequent dandelion Taraxacum officinale, or TO, which required the use of recombinant DNA know-how.

The Cornish lab has partnered completely with American Sustainable Rubber (ASR) to develop a hybrid cultivar of the TK dandelion that’s genetically engineered to be grown year-round indoors domestically, using industrial scale vertical hydroponic (liquid nutrient) managed surroundings agriculture (CEA) know-how.

The aim of the lab’s joint analysis with ASR on the TK dandelion is to attain a rise of pure rubber content material from the present degree of lower than 10 p.c to greater than 20 p.c in the dry dandelion root mass, successfully lowering the required dimension and upfront capital funding and annual working expense of a commercial-scale manufacturing facility by greater than 50 p.c, whereas concurrently bettering annual manufacturing effectivity and profitability.

“Once we understand the regulatory bottlenecks that limit the amount of rubber my rubber dandelions make, we may be able to use this technology to open them up and improve rubber yield while still producing a healthy crop,” Cornish advised TechNewsWorld.

Lettuce Vaccines

Influenza, a viral illness handed from individual to individual by contact with respiratory droplets, usually is handled in advance of an infection with vaccines used as a safety measure to confer immunity in opposition to the flu virus.

Like all disease-bearing organisms, flu viruses produce antigens — overseas particles, normally proteins, able to producing in the physique immunogenicity — an immune system response.

The physique’s immunogenic response consists of particular antibodies generated by plasma cells on account of publicity to express parts of the antigen known as “antigenic determinants,” or “epitopes.” These small, particular parts of antigen are acknowledged by immune system parts, primarily antibodies — blood proteins produced in response to and counteracting a selected antigen.

A single antigen normally shows a number of completely different epitopes. The area on an antibody that acknowledges a specific epitope known as its corresponding “paratope.” Antibody paratopes match precisely with and bind to particular antigen epitopes.

In the previous, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required that flu vaccines be developed utilizing fertilized hen eggs as hosts for rising the influenza virus. That is now not the case.

One post-egg know-how for flu vaccines accredited to be used in the U.S. market in 2013 includes utilizing recombinant protein know-how. This rDNA vaccine manufacturing methodology doesn’t use hen eggs in any respect in the course of. Instead, producers isolate a sure gene (the hemagglutinin “HA” or neuraminidase “NA” gene) from a naturally occurring, or “wild type,” really useful vaccine virus.

Flublok from Sanofi Pasteur, accredited by the FDA to be used in individuals 18 years of age and older, is a vaccine containing recombinant proteins indicated for energetic immunization in opposition to illness attributable to influenza A virus subtypes and influenza kind B virus contained in the vaccine.

Flublok is made by taking the genetic info from one HA flu virus protein and placing it into cultured cells which can be grown in stainless-steel tanks.

Viral vaccines additionally could be plant-made, or “biofarmed.”

Plant genetic engineering know-how was established many years in the past, however now biofarmed prescribed drugs and vaccines are quick approaching commercialization.

Plant genomics is the a part of molecular biology working with the construction, operate, evolution and mapping of genomes in crops. Although crops are tougher to work with than micro organism, gene insertions could be made into single plant cells, and the cells then could be cultivated to kind a mature plant.

The main methodology for inserting genes into plant cells is thru the use of plasmids, replicating bacterial DNA segments outdoors of cell chromosomes.

Transgenic crops are crops which have been genetically engineered, a breeding strategy that makes use of recombinant DNA methods to create crops with new traits. They are recognized as a category of genetically modified organism (GMO).

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a globally necessary leafy vegetable that has been used in analysis on the secure expression of transgenes. Lettuce transgenic analysis carried out thus far has targeted primarily on bettering the dietary and physiological worth of lettuce.

Now lettuce has joined crops like tobacco and potatoes, generally used as bioreactors producing pharmaceutical protein and vaccines.

In the means of recombinant protein know-how, an HA of NA gene is mixed with parts of one other virus that grows properly in lettuce cells as a bunch for gene introduction. This is achieved in vitro in the laboratory through the use of tissue cultures of plant stem cells in order to supply a desired protein.

Vaccines derived from this recombinant virus methodology include an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism antigen and infrequently is created from weakened or killed types of the virus, its toxins, or one among its floor proteins. The lettuce leaves carrying the organic vaccine substance then are freeze-dried and processed into capsules containing vaccine-laden lettuce leaf powder.

Organic Genomics Inc.

Ohio-based Organic Genomics Inc. (OGI) has submitted a proposal for using the SGI-DNA BioXp 3200 system to the Universal Influenza Vaccine Development Grand Challenge, a program backed by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Google’s Larry Page.

The Gates Foundation and Page have provided as much as US$12 million in funding as a part of a 2018 initiative to help the growth of a common influenza vaccine. The program seeks to fund novel ideas that scale back flu’s international dying toll and considerably mitigate the persistent international pandemic flu menace.

DNA, by means of RNA, codes for the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain that kinds a protein. A peptide is a compound consisting of two or extra amino acids.

Peptide vaccines are a lovely different to standard vaccines, as a result of they depend on the utilization of brief peptide fragments to engineer the induction of extremely focused immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and different antagonistic reactions (e.g., fever).

Peptides used in these vaccines are 20-30 amino acid sequences which can be synthesized to kind an immunogenic peptide molecule representing particular epitopes on the goal antigen.

OGI has taken a novel strategy to combating influenza with a “multi-valent peptide vaccine” created by genetically engineering hydroponically grown lettuce crops to elicit a higher immune response. These peptides are genetically engineered to focus on all the numerous 18 HA and 11 NA viral antigens and their epitopes that make up all influenza sub-types.

Vaccines developed by OGI are designed for oral consumption and could be distributed as capsules consisting of plant-based powder enclosed in a dissolvable gelatin capsule container.

“We are utilizing the SGI BioXp 3200 module to print custom vectors — transporting agents — that we synthesize into lettuce plant stem cells that can be cultured into mature plants exhibiting the ability to biologically produce vaccines,” defined Timothy Madden, CEO of OGI.

“Each head of lettuce serves as its own individual organic bioreactor in which production of the pharmaceutical compound takes place,” he advised TechNewsWorld.

A industrial scale manufacturing facility may produce thousands and thousands of doses of specified vaccines yearly at a value aggressive with present vaccine manufacturing strategies, in line with Madden, and an encapsulated powder lettuce vaccine might be dry saved at room temperature, making it superb for cargo and use in growing international locations for humanitarian functions.


In May 2017, Synthetic Genomics, Inc. (SGI) introduced the growth and operation of its Digital-to-Biological Converter (DBC) prototype that produces biologic compounds on demand with none human intervention.

The DBC integrates a lot of the artificial biology instruments developed by Synthetic Genomics for creating advanced artificial DNA, all in one absolutely automated unit.

One of the foremost items in the DBC is the BioXP 3200 — the firm’s artificial DNA assembler that’s already marketed round the world to researchers who use it to create artificial DNA samples. The remainder of the parts in the DBC obtain and course of info.

“Like a fax machine, our digital biological converter is an instrument designed to receive digitized instructions — in this case, DNA code — and assemble the ‘genetic’ ingredients for medicine production,” stated Dan Gibson, Ph.D., vice chairman, DNA know-how, at SGI.

Gibson spilled the beads (pun supposed) on how his “biological transportation” idea works in his 2018 TED talk on “How to build synthetic DNA and send it across the Internet.”

“We are working to reduce the size of the current DBC so that one day hospitals around the world can easily ‘print’ personalized medicines for each of their patients, the same way doctors can easily and routinely draw blood or take an X-ray,” Gibson advised TechNewsWorld.

The DBC machine accepts digital representations of DNA over the Internet and reconstructs them on the spot utilizing the 4 chemical nitrogenous nucleotide bases discovered in DNA — adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine — the DNA constructing blocks of life derived from phosphoramidite sources.

Just like a printer, the DBC wants cassettes, however as a substitute of containing coloured inks, the system makes use of bottles of chemical compounds containing artificial DNA to be used in the DNA printing of proteins.

Ned Madden is a California-based advertising skilled and journalist who writes about know-how and business-related matters. You can electronic mail him at nedmadden[at]cox[dot]web.

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